閱讀是一門複雜的任務,而識字是學習閱讀的先決條件。識字與否,取決於我們能否將文字的形、音、義緊扣起來(Plaut, 2005)。因此,要幫助孩子建立識字量,便要訓練他們連繫文字符號以及其相應的讀音和意義;再透過不斷重溫,他們的記憶會更穩固,認讀的速度亦會越來越快。上回提及到,我們可透過朗讀繪本及親子伴讀等方式,促進孩子認讀及口語與書面語轉換的能力(見第十章:朗讀圖書促進識字)。本節則會分享一些日常方法及遊戲,讓家長掌握幫助幼兒溫習字詞、促進認讀的技巧。

有甚麼技巧可幫助幼兒加強字形、字音和字義的連結?

1. 將文字圖像化:從字形能容易聯想出實物的象形文字或部首著手(例:「日」、「月」、「山」、「木」、「火」、「牛」、「艹」等)。家長可講述文字演變的故事,或直接將字形掛勾相關的圖像;例如展示出太陽的圖片、講解古人如何發明出有關太陽的象形文字,並演變成現今的漢字「日」。此舉可幫助孩子更容易記憶該文字的字形及意思,同時提升對文字的興趣。

   

2. 部首聯繫字義:解說部首的意思後,再利用部首連結相關字詞的意思,例如有「艹」(草花頭)的文字均與植物有關,包括「花」、「草」、「菜苗」等。

其他例子:

3. 以字/詞義分類:將詞語按主題或類別分類來學習,有助孩子利用字義提取相關字詞的讀音和字形。

例子:

遊戲一:尋字遊戲

目的:幫助孩子更牢固地聯繫字詞的形、音、義,增加識字量

  • 準備一些常用的中文詞彙,製成字卡或詞語卡。
  • 將字卡攤開隨機放在桌上,當家長讀出一個字詞時,孩子便要盡快拍或指出那張字卡。
  • 孩子拍出正確的字卡後,家長可馬上說出下一個字詞;亦可偶爾停一停,請孩子解釋該詞語的意思(例:「醫生」係幫我哋醫病嘅人),若孩子的回答合理,應加以讚賞。
  • 起初可選約 4-5 張字卡進行遊戲,並給予時間讓孩子作出反應。當孩子熟習玩法後,家長可以加快速度、增加字詞的數量、或混入相近的字詞,增加刺激度;親子亦可輪流互換角色進行遊戲。

遊戲二:部首對對碰

目的:幫助孩子分辨近形字,並明白部首有提示字義的作用。

  • 收集一些字形相近但部首不同、而孩子能容易明白其意思的字(例:「燈/橙」、「跑/炮」、「浪/狼」、「池/他/她」、「跳/桃/挑」、「苗/雷」、「藍/籃」)。要留意應選擇常用的基礎字詞,不應太艱深,令孩子難於記認,失去學習興趣。
  • 製作字卡時,留白部首的位置;另外再製作一些部首卡。(如圖一示)
  • 展示留白了部首的字卡,並給予 2-3 個部首供孩子選擇。(如圖二示)
  • 描述該字的意思,請孩子按字義選出正確的部首卡。
    (例:呢個係「燈籠」嘅「燈」字,咁我哋應該擺邊個部首落去呢度呀(指著留白位置)? / 呢個係「橙汁」嘅「橙」字,咁我哋應該擺邊個部首落去呢度呀?
  • 在過程中,家長可盡量把握機會提示其部首字形所引伸的意思。
    (例:古代嘅人係用火嚟點著啲燈籠嘅,所以個部首就會係火字旁喇 / 整橙汁嘅橙係一種水果,即係植物嚟㗎喎,所以個部首就會係木字旁喇
  • 若孩子能選出正確的部首,家長亦可請孩子當「小老師」,解釋一下為何會選擇這個部首,若孩子的回答合理,應加以讚賞。
  • 家長和小孩也可利用拼好的字,說出更多由這個字組成的詞語或句子,以深化孩子對字義的記憶。(例如「燈」字:「開燈」、「燈泡」、「燈光」、「睡覺前要關燈」、「書枱上有盞枱燈」等)

圖一

圖二

識字是閱讀的基礎,因此,要培養孩子的閱讀興趣及能力,便要先幫助他們掌握識字策略,以增加識字量。要鞏固孩子的認讀能力,必須多看、多讀,才能加深他們對文字的記憶;家長可結合朗讀繪本與上述的訓練遊戲,雙管齊下來達到最佳的學習效果。當孩子能正確分辨及認讀不同文字,到了閱讀及書寫的時候便能更得心應手。下一節,我們將會介紹幫助建立幼兒書寫能力的方法。

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

參考資料

Plaut, D. C. (2005). Connectionist approaches to reading. The science of reading: A handbook, 24-38.

 

語言及文字是溝通和學習的重要橋樑。正如學習語言一樣,當走進文字世界時,孩子也要有充份接觸文字的機會和重複練習才能識字,明白到文字就是用來表達意思的另一種方法,或就是用來記錄語言的一種符號。因此,在教導孩子識字時,必須把那個字詞的形、音、義緊扣起來,當孩子看到那個字詞時,腦袋便隨即出現相應的讀音和意思,識字量便如此慢慢累積起來。

 

然而,香港以粵語為主要語言,有些口語詞𢑥未必與標準漢語(即書面語言)相同,例如「猴子」我們會說「馬騮」;「誰」會說成「邊個」;「下雨」會說成「落雨」;「吃了」會說成「食咗」等等。這個口語跟書面語落差的情況,會阻礙孩子學習那些字詞。在閱讀繪本時加入朗讀繪本環節,既可增加孩子認讀文字的機會,更可藉此加強他們口語與書面語轉換的能力,更能理解繪本中的文字所表達的意思。

 

朗讀繪本的準備功夫

  1. 挑選繪本:
  • 圖文配合、用詞及句式簡潔。
  • 字詞及句式重複出現:孩子有更多機會複習那些詞語及句式,幫助記憶(例:彩虹系列繪本或《愛吃水果的牛》)。
  • 符合孩子程度:因應孩子的能力選擇難度及長度適中的繪本(例:孩子能認讀書中八成以上文字及可在 15-20 分鐘內完成閱讀整本圖書)。若孩子對文字不感興趣,可先選擇多圖畫、少文字的繪本。

 

2. 先講述故事,後朗讀繪本:

  • 運用「對話式閱讀」中提問、回應、擴展及複述的四個步驟,由家長引導孩子理解及欣賞繪本的內容。
  • 當孩子熟識了故事內容後,家長便可與孩子朗讀內文。

 

朗讀繪本的好處和注意事項

 

  1. 家長朗讀繪本給孩子聽,可讓孩子熟悉以書面文字表達意思的方式,有助提升閱讀理解的能力。

 

  1. 在朗讀過程中,孩子有更多機會學習口語與書面語的對應。研究發現,當孩子口語及書面語轉換的意識提升,他們運用書面詞𢑥及書面句式寫作的表現均有進步(吳偉文,2013)。

 

  1. 如何朗讀繪本?
  • 家長可以一邊指著繪本上的文字,一邊朗讀,而朗讀的速度可以放慢。孩子能在觀察指讀的過程中,學會一字一音的概念及嘗試認字。

 

  1. 如何學習口語與書面語轉換?
  • 朗讀故事時,當遇到那些口語跟書面語不同的詞𢑥及句子時,(例:「猴子」、「回家」、「你住在哪裡?」),家長便要解說兩者的分別(口語是日常對話用語,而書面語是寫在書本上的用語),並示範對換(例:「回家」即是「返屋企」的意思),讓孩子理解兩者擁有相同的意思,但有不同的表達模式。

例子:

家長:「有一隻猴子在樹上。」

家長:(解說故事同時指著文字)「有一隻馬騮喺樹上面喎。」

家長:「猴子即係咩呀?」

孩子 :「馬騮。」

家長:「係喎。平時我地講嘅馬騮,寫出嚟就喺猴子。」

 

  1. 親子伴讀:與孩子一起朗讀圖書,有助提升識字能力及建立自行閱讀的習慣。
  • 由於親子伴讀需要孩子朗讀文字,孩子必須已掌握一定的字詞(例:K2以上)。家長需選擇孩子能認讀八成以上內容的繪本進行伴讀。
  • 家長與孩子一邊指一邊朗讀文字。家長盡量緊貼孩子的速度,但需比他稍慢(約半秒),既能讓孩子主導朗讀的過程,亦有助家長知道孩子未能掌握哪些字詞,加以教導。
  • 當孩子遇到困難的字或讀錯字音時,家長可以停 3-4 秒,讓孩子嘗試更正讀音。
  • 期間家長可以給予簡短提示(例:圖畫,動作,語言提示)或提出正確讀音,讓孩子重複一次正確讀音,然後繼續一同誦讀。
  • 每當孩子嘗試或讀出正確字音時,家長可以多加讚賞。

 

家長除了可以用「對話式閱讀」的方法講述繪本故事,以提升孩子的語言能力外,也可與朗讀、解說口語與書面語落差的字詞及親子伴讀等技巧並用,讓孩子學習書面文字及句式。下一節,我們將會介紹更多幫助幼兒認讀文字的遊戲。

 

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

參考資料

 

吳偉文 (2013) . 小三中文寫作行動研究: 提升小學生的語言轉換能力.

 

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

【家長工作坊】博思會高小數學學科支援家長工作坊上星期已圓滿結束,唐詠賢老師分享如何有效教導讀障孩子數感、分數及小數概念、計算及應用技巧,更示範一些簡易計算數學方法,讓孩子逐步完成計算出正確答案。

博思會2019-20年度「從認識到實踐」家長講座及工作坊已經全部完成,感謝各家長參與。家長如欲參與日後博思會家長活動,可密切留意此專頁之公佈。

【家長工作坊】博思會初小數學學科支援家長工作坊於星期二圓滿結束,在第二堂中,數學科劉綺妮老師除了介紹有效的加減教學方法外,亦向家長展示如何向讀寫障礙學生教導乘除的概念。

美國心理學家 Whitehurst 提出的「對話式閱讀」包含四個步驟,讓父母引導孩子主動說故事,從而建立幼兒的語言能力(Whitehurst et al., 1988),鞏固幼兒學習閱讀的先備條件。上回介紹了五種提問方法及正面回饋的技巧,這次會講解一下擴展及複述兩個步驟。有關擴展的技巧,家長可回顧先前第四及第六章的內容。(詳見第四章:打好口語基本功,要聽得清時講得準!第六章:句子講得好,讀寫能力亦更好?)

「擴展」及「複述」有甚麼好處?

  • 家長藉著擴展孩子的回答,示範以精確的詞𢑥及結構完整的句子表達意思,增加孩子聆聽及學習準確的用詞和說話的機會。
  • 請孩子複述擴展後的詞𢑥及句子,目的是給孩子更多機會去練習良好的口語表達,有助提升他們的語言理解、說句子及敍述故事的能力。
  • 在說故事的過程中讓孩子參與更多,使他們更投入。

擴展(Expand)常用的方法

複述(Repeat)要訣

  • 以提問或直接鼓勵孩子複述經擴展的詞彙或句子,家長宜耐心等候孩子回應,在需要時提供輔助,例如家長先說出上半句讓孩子說下去,或與孩子一起複述。
  • 家長可以重複問題的方式引導孩子複述句子,以免過於機械式,令孩子感到沉悶。
  • 家長要緊記給予正面回饋和讚賞。

 

 

「對話式閱讀」強調親子之間的互動,父母對孩子的細心教導及正面回饋是促進孩子語言發展的關鍵。父母在閱讀的過程中對孩子的引導,讓孩子在語言世界中能更茁壯成長。下一節,我們將會進入文字的世界,介紹有關認讀、默寫方面的讀寫障礙先兆。

 

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

參考資料

 

Whitehurst, G. J., Falco, F. L., Lonigan, C., Fischel, J. E., DeBaryshe, B. D., Valdez-Menchaca, M. C., & Caulfield, M. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology, 24, 522-559.

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

 

 

【家長工作坊】博思會數學科唐詠賢老師昨晚展開高小數學學科支援家長工作坊,唐老師利用不同小工具、遊戲及其他網上資源,教導家長如何將複雜的數學概念,如乘除數及分數等,通過不同遊戲去讓孩子明白及鞏固有關概念。

兒童的語言發展像層層遞進的階梯,由學習詞𢑥開始,然後至句子以及理解和敍述故事的層面。在這發展過程中,繪本是個很好的媒介培養孩子理解故事的能力,並讓他們步進文字的世界。美國心理學家 Whitehurst 建立的「對話式閱讀」強調親子之間的互動,讓父母在親子共讀時,利用一些對話般的閱讀技巧,將幼兒從被動的聆聽者轉化為主動的說故事者,父母則擔任引導和協助的角色;只須透過四個簡單的步驟,便能有系統地建立幼兒的語言能力(Whitehurst et al., 1988)。

 

「對話式閱讀」有甚麼好處?

  • Whitehurst et al.(1988)的研究顯示,進行「對話式閱讀」訓練後,幼兒的口語詞𢑥及口語表達流暢度比同齡幼兒發展快約 6 及5 個月。
  • 本地研究證實「對話式閱讀」不單能提升幼兒對閱讀的興趣,更能促進他們的口語詞彙量及中文書面詞彙的認識(Chow et al., 2008)。
  • 「對話式閱讀」中的親子互動能強化正面的親子關係。本地研究指出,家長與孩子進行「對話式閱讀」後,認為自己在管教及親子溝通的技巧上均有提升(Ganotice et al.,2017).。

 

「對話式閱讀」4步驟 

 

 

 

「對話式閱讀」例子

家長 :「叔叔點解要返屋企?」(提問 Prompt

孩子 :「有月亮。」

家長:「係喎(回應 Evaluate

家長:「好夜喇,所以叔叔要返屋企瞓覺。」(擴展 Expand

家長:「叔叔要返屋企瞓覺。你跟我講一次。

孩子:「叔叔要返屋企瞓覺。」(複述 Repeat

 

[家長Q&A]

Q:怎樣引發孩子說故事呢?有甚麼要留心的?

A:「對話式閱讀」以問題引發孩子留意故事的發展和細節,促進孩子對故事的理解及表達能力。

 

  1. 五種提問方法(CROWD
  • 因應孩子的能力提問適合的問題,可多用能引發直接及有具體答案的問題 (填充式、回想式、六何法),讓孩子能從故事及圖畫中取得答案,從而更掌握故事的脈胳。
  • 給予時間讓孩子回應。若孩子未能回答,家長可以動作、聲音或圖畫提示,協助孩子想出有關的故事細節。


  1. 正面回應
  • 正面回饋孩子的回答,簡短的回應 (例:係喎、嗯、哦) 能讓孩子知道你用心聆聽他們的回答。
  • 積極讚美與鼓勵兒童的表現(例:讚賞孩子所答的、留心聆聽、專注、願意猜想等),提高孩子的成就感及動機。

 

閱讀繪本對孩子的讀寫萌發十分重要,而「對話式閱讀」這種親子共讀的方式提供孩子充份口語表達的機會,亦能提升他們理解事件的能力。在過程家長要緊記讚賞孩子的投入、專注和努力嘗試啊。下一節,我們將會解說「對話式閱讀」中擴展及複述兩個步驟的技巧。

 

撰文:香港大學實習教育心理學家陳潔笙、廖藝婕

顧問:博思會資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士

 

 

參考資料

 

Chow, B. W. Y., McBride-Chang, C., Cheung, H., & Chow, C. S. L. (2008). Dialogic reading and morphology training in Chinese children: Effects on language and literacy. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 233.

 

Ganotice Jr, F. A., Downing, K., Mak, T., Chan, B., & Lee, W. Y. (2017). Enhancing parent-child relationship through dialogic reading. Educational Studies, 43(1), 51-66.

 

Whitehurst, G. J., Falco, F. L., Lonigan, C., Fischel, J. E., DeBaryshe, B. D., Valdez-Menchaca, M. C., & Caulfield, M. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology, 24, 522-559.

 

有用連結

識別及支援有讀寫困難幼兒系列 – 其他文章分享

【家長工作坊】博思會數學科劉綺妮老師昨晚主持初小數學學科支援家長工作坊,劉老師與家長分享了不同遊戲,讓孩子可以在遊戲中學習數學概念,同時亦可促進親子關係。

Mrs. Li, mother of Chloe, looked back to the day she stepped out of the Pamela Youde Child Assessment Centre, holding in her hand the assessment report indicating that her daughter showed early signs of dyslexia, along with ADHD and impulsive personality. Mrs. Li was extremely worried; Chloe was just a kindergarten student, how would her learning path be?

In order to know more about dyslexia, Mrs. Li attended a parent seminar organized by Pathways. After listening to the speaker, she realized that early intervention will make training more effective. Hence she enrolled Chloe into Pathways’ intervention programme. Chloe is now a Primary 4 student, and she has been taking lessons at Pathways for nearly five years, from the Early Literacy Support Programme when she was in K3, to the After School Support Programme in Chinese, English and Mathematics.

As Chloe has a short memory span, it is easy for her to forget what she learns from school. Teachers at Pathways, on the other hand, make use of multi-sensory and interactive games to teach, making learning more interesting for Chloe, and her performance gradually improves.

“I enjoy learning at Pathways as the teaching style is different from that in school. Not only is it more interesting, it also makes it easier for me to understand and remember the key content, helping me to improve my academic results,” Chloe said.

In fact, even other parents noticed the change in Chloe’s learning behavior. Mrs. Li is very thankful for the long-term support and guidance from the teachers at Pathways; in particular when teachers take time after class dismissal to explain to her the progress of her child, and the areas that need more attention. This makes Chloe understand that family and teachers are always here to support her.

“Learning at Pathways is very important to Chloe. When I schedule extra-curricular activities for her, lessons at Pathways are always the top priority. Even though we have to travel from Hong Kong Island to Mongkok for class, we still think that it is well worth the effort,” Mrs. Li concluded.

Source: 2018-19 Annual Report

Mrs. Li (second from the right) is very supportive of her daughter Chloe's (third from right) learning at Pathways.
Mrs. Li (second from the right) is very supportive of her daughter Chloe’s (third from right) learning at Pathways.

 

Chloe and Mrs. Li attended the Student Attendance Award Presentation Ceremony.
Chloe and Mrs. Li attended the Student Attendance Award Presentation Ceremony.

 

Chloe with her mother, Mrs. Li.
Chloe with her mother, Mrs. Li.

 

By communicating with teachers, Mrs. Li understood more about Chloe's learning progress.
By communicating with teachers, Mrs. Li understood more about Chloe’s learning progress.

Siblings Raegan and Ariel have been taking lessons at Pathways for a number of years. Apart from the attention and guidance from teachers, the comprehensive care from their parents has also proven indispensable.

Mr. Raymond Cheung, father of Raegan and Ariel, is a pediatric physiotherapist. When Raegan was in Primary 1, Mr. Cheung noticed that Raegan had difficulty recognizing and writing words, and would often skip words or jump lines when reading. During that time, Mr. Cheung learnt about Pathways. He decided to send Raegan for an assessment, and was informed that Raegan was diagnosed as having dyslexia. After that, Mr. Cheung signed Raegan up at Pathways to receive intervention support for both Chinese and English literacy, and from there Raegan was able to find his direction in learning.

With this experience, Mr. Cheung learnt more about dyslexia, and realized that the condition could run in the family. Therefore he paid special attention to their younger daughter Ariel’s learning. Ariel performed well in Primary 1, and was even chosen to be class monitor. However, she showed difficulties in learning later on, often forgetting how to write words, misreading them, or writing mirrored characters. At that time, Ariel’s parents still hoped that it was simply due to carelessness.  However, the situation got worse when Ariel was in Primary 2.

 

Early Assessment Allows Prompt Treatment

“Ariel was assessed when she was in Primary 2, and she was diagnosed as being borderline dyslexic,” said Mr. Cheung. “The assessing psychologist mentioned that if a child only barely passes the assessment in Primary 1 or 2, and therefore not given any further training, they will certainly fail further assessments in upper grades.”

Therefore, arrangements were made for Ariel also to have intervention support at Pathways. The teacher taught her phonograms and pictograms, improving her ability in word recognition. She stopped pronouncing characters by their radicals; 「峽 」 was no longer read as 「山 」, and 「故 」 was no longer read as「古 」.

Mr. Cheung expressed that he and his wife were glad to have arranged for an early assessment for Ariel, and to have dealt with it as soon as they knew of her condition. By now, they understand the learning needs of both their children, and therefore the family will always reserve more time for exam preparations. During summer holidays, they will encourage Raegan and Ariel to read passages for comprehension, yet without completing the written exercises; the children will also read short English storybooks, write diaries, etc. The purpose is for them to accumulate knowledge little bit by bit over time – not for getting better grades in exams, but to make it easier for them to learn in the future.

Learning is a Long-Distance Running Race

Apart from being the way to acquire knowledge, Mr. Cheung also instilled the importance of learning to his children from a young age, preparing them mentally for their growth. Most children with dyslexia do not like words, and it is difficult for them to attend class in mainstream schools. However, Mr. Cheung compares this learning process to a long-distance running race. He wants to equip his children with the mindset to win the race. With this mindset, they can then think of how to actively prepare for the goal.

“It is important that the children themselves have the willingness to compete, otherwise all the training will just be forced upon them, and it will be a lose-lose situation where both the parents and the children will be unhappy about,” said Mr. Cheung.

In the eyes of Mr. and Mrs. Cheung, Raegan and Ariel are not under-performers in exams. As long as their children try their best in preparation, and they do better than they did before, that will be fine. Being parents, they will always have their children’s back, and accompany them along this journey of learning!

Source: 2018-19 Annual Report

Raegan and Ariel with their parents.
Raegan and Ariel with their parents.
Mr. Raymond Cheung was interviewed by the press on how to support his child with dyslexia in learning.
Mr. Raymond Cheung was interviewed by the press on how to support his child with dyslexia in learning.