The term “dyslexia” may be unfamiliar to many parents, and they never expected the condition to be happening to their children. This is the case for Mrs. Chan, mother of two boys. Her elder son studied at a kindergarten which offered a happy learning environment, with little emphasis on learning to read and write. When he advanced to primary school and faced the load of homework and tests, problems surfaced. It was not until the second term of primary one when Mrs. Chan found out that he was dyslexic, and also had attention deficiency problem.

Learning from this experience, and knowing that the dyslexic condition can be hereditary, Mrs. Chan paid extra attention to her younger son’s learning ability, and noticed that he had even more serious reading, writing and memory difficulties than her elder son.

Since the summer vacation of K2 in kindergarten, Sung Chit began to participate in Pathways’ Pre-school Intervention Programme. The teacher focused on increasing his learning motivation, and taught him character recognition and reading according to his level of capability. As Sung Chit’s problem was identified at an early stage, allowing him to receive appropriate intervention and support, he had a much smoother transition to primary one. He was more willing to accept new challenges, and no longer resisted reading and writing.

Mrs. Chan expressed thanks to Pathways’ teachers for their care and support to parents, which made them feel like having a social worker walking with them along the way. ‘’Whether it was about school selection or about the child’s character development, the teacher spoke to me as a friend, and helped me analyze how to teach him effectively. The constant care and encouragement gave me strength,’’ she said.

Overcoming learning difficulty should not be a challenge that the child faces on his own. Parents should take the initiative to look for timely professional advice and assistance, and this is the positive way to solve the problem.

Source: 2017-18 Annual Report

Dr. Catherine Lam (left), vice-chairperson of Pathways presented a souvenir to Sung Chit’s mother (right).

Mother of Sung Chit shared her story at Pathway’s seminar.

The term “dyslexia” may be unfamiliar to many parents, and they never expected the condition to be happening to their children. This is the case for Mrs. Chan, mother of two boys. Her elder son studied at a kindergarten which offered a happy learning environment, with little emphasis on learning to read and write. When he advanced to primary school and faced the load of homework and tests, problems surfaced. It was not until the second term of primary one when Mrs. Chan found out that he was dyslexic, and also had attention deficiency problem.

Learning from this experience, and knowing that the dyslexic condition can be hereditary, Mrs. Chan paid extra attention to her younger son’s learning ability, and noticed that he had even more serious reading, writing and memory difficulties than her elder son.

Since the summer vacation of K2 in kindergarten, Sung Chit began to participate in Pathways’ Pre-school Intervention Programme. The teacher focused on increasing his learning motivation, and taught him character recognition and reading according to his level of capability. As Sung Chit’s problem was identified at an early stage, allowing him to receive appropriate intervention and support, he had a much smoother transition to primary one. He was more willing to accept new challenges, and no longer resisted reading and writing.

Mrs. Chan expressed thanks to Pathways’ teachers for their care and support to parents, which made them feel like having a social worker walking with them along the way. ‘’Whether it was about school selection or about the child’s character development, the teacher spoke to me as a friend, and helped me analyze how to teach him effectively. The constant care and encouragement gave me strength,’’ she said.

Overcoming learning difficulty should not be a challenge that the child faces on his own. Parents should take the initiative to look for timely professional advice and assistance, and this is the positive way to solve the problem.

Dr. Catherine Lam (left), vice-chairperson of Pathways presented a souvenir to Sung Chit’s mother (right).

Mother of Sung Chit shared her story at Pathway’s seminar.

When Fei Fei was in K2 kindergarten, her mother began to worry that she might have a problem with her intelligence as Fei Fei could not even read one Chinese character. Since no formal diagnostic assessment for dyslexia is available for children under six years old, Fei Fei’s mother incidentally learned about Pathways’ launch of a dyslexia screening test for pre-school children. She then brought Fei Fei to the screening test, and found out that her daughter was identified to be at risk of dyslexia. Fei Fei was therefore enrolled into Pathways’ pre-school intervention programme.

When Fei Fei came home after her first class at Pathways, her mother was pleasantly surprised. “The teacher taught her how to read by pointing at the characters with a finger while reading each character out. When Fei Fei came home, she used the same method and was able to read out characters by pointing at them. I’m so impressed!” she said. From then on, Fei Fei always looked forward to going to class, and came home smiling.

Fei Fei’s mother used to be an outstanding student herself at school. In the beginning she struggled to understand why her daughter could not identify or understand even simple characters, like “個”. Nevertheless, after the guidance and encouragement from Pathways’ teachers, she finally understood that difficulty in character recognition is very common among children with dyslexia.

“I admire all of you so much,” said Fei Fei’s mother. She appreciates not only the teachers’ dedication in teaching Fei Fei, but also their continued effort in supporting parents. After each class, the teacher would explain how the student performed in class, and also show the parent methods to help the child learn at home, so that both parties can effectively work towards motivating the child to learn.

For example, the teacher showed her how to use hand-clapping to indicate syllables to the child, illustrating that there is one sound to one character. So when she claps three times along with the term “好朋友” (hou2 pang4 jau4 – good friend) , Fei Fei would realize that the term is made up of three characters.

After a year’s hard work, Fei Fei went from not being able to recognize any character, to being able to write a simple complete sentence like “爸爸和媽媽一起到公園” (father and mother went to the park together); her parents are pleased to see that they have found a suitable way of learning for their daughter. And most importantly, Fei Fei, now a primary one student, is also adjusting well at school. This is solid proof that early identification and early intervention can bring about change as soon as possible!

Source: 2017-18 Annual Report
Fei Fei and her parents.

博思會與港大同學會書院合作,展開為期兩年的教師專業發展及校本支援計劃。是項計劃由博思會顧問鄭佩芸教授帶領,聯同本會中文科教學團隊陳楹楹老師及杜家倩老師為學校提供多元化的培訓活動。

第一階段(17/18)以認識讀寫障礙學生及學習需要為主

計劃包括

1) 教師講座,加強老師對讀寫障礙的認識。

2) 課程分析,讓老師了解校內課程的特點。

3) 學生個案分析,協助老師深入認識個別學生的學習特徵及需要。

4) 帶領校內老師檢視及調整課程,以照顧校內不同學習需要的學生。訓練模式以講座及工作坊形式進行。

第二階段(18/19)以發展校本的教學策略、課程及學生學習技巧為主。

計劃包括1) 培訓種籽教師,活動包括:共同備課、觀課和課堂示範,協助老師調節課程並應用閱讀策略進行教學。

2) 針對讀寫障礙學生在閱讀理解及寫作文方面的困難,設計配合他們學習模式的教案,為教師提供教案範例。

3) 開展校本支援課程,教學團隊在課後為學生提供寫作訓練。

博思會提供校本支援課程,圖為學生的課堂練習。

鄭佩芸教授與港大同學會老師分享,向他們講解讀寫障礙學生的困難及如何設計合適的教案。

以上文章節錄自2019年3月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享

2019-03-18

功課點評

家長們或會很好奇博思會老師是如何教導學生,今期就讓我們分享中文老師平日在課堂上如何幫助學生,若家長有興趣知道老師更多的小秘技,記得報名參加8月份的「與博思專家有約」,有「早期中文」的探討及相關支援方法啦 !

中文老師處理學生的錯別字情況時,會先考慮學生對字詞的結構及意思的理解,讓他們理解箇中意思,加深對正字的記憶,避免重覆犯錯,以下的例子說明老師是如何引導學生學習正確字詞。

指出學生錯處

1. 一名小五學生混淆了「哥」與「歌」字的書寫方法。

老師回應方法

2. 老師寫出「哥」與「歌」字的正字,並以不同的顏色筆寫出部件「欠」,以標示兩字不同之處。

3a. 老師請學生指出「哥」和「歌」字不同的部件,接著以橫間「__」間出不同的地方。

3b.然後,老師請學生以「配詞識字」形式,以「哥」和「歌」字作配詞,讓學生認識兩字的用途,例如「哥」是指兄長、哥哥的意思,而「歌」是指「唱歌」。

3c. 之後,老師向學生介紹「歌」是形聲字,由「哥」和「欠」字組成,「哥」是聲旁,而「欠」是形旁。在象形字中,「欠」字有人張開口出氣的意思,與「吹」意思相似。因為唱「歌」和「人張開口出氣」有關,因此,從「欠」。

學生回應方法

4. 請學生檢查自己寫的「哥」字與「歌」字的不同之處,以橫間「__」間出遺漏的部份。

5. 檢查後,在橫間「__」上填上遺漏了的部件。

6. 在空白位置,完整地寫出詞語。

以上文章節錄自2019年3月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享

2019-03-18

家長們或會很好奇博思會老師是如何教導學生,今期就讓我們分享數學老師平日在課堂上如何幫助學生,若家長有興趣知道老師更多的小秘技,記得報名參加4月份的「與博思專家有約」,有「早期數學」的探討及相關支援方法啦 !

數學科

在數學科中,讀寫障礙學生往往不懂處理「比較型」文字題,如「… 比 … 多」、「… 比 … 少」、「… 比 … 長」、「… 比 … 短」,未能分出應用「加數」還是「減數」計算。

例子: 明明中中14厘米 , 明明 身高95厘米。問 中中 身高多少厘米 ?

學生看到「矮」字就當作「減數」。

博思會數學老師通常用以下的圖解策略 (RDWC strategy), 一步一步跟小朋友拆解文字題,引導他們得到正確的答案,家長也不妨參考一下。

第一步 讀解 (R – Read)

老師 (T) : 你先將題目讀出嚟。

學生 (S) : (把題目一字一字慢慢地讀出)

T: 你而家用口語講一次俾我聽。

S: (用口語講出題目)

(* 如小朋友不懂用口語表達,家長可以示範一次。)

T: 題目裏面 , 有幾多個「人」 ?

S: 2個

T: 邊兩個 ?

S: 明明 , 中中

T: 啱啦 ! 喺呢度寫低「明明」同「中中」個名。

(見圖 1 )

第二步 圖解 (D – Draw)

T: 而家我哋做第二步圖解。

要畫兩個火柴人仔來代表「明明」 同「中中」

你會畫邊個先?

S: 明明

T: 咁你喺 「明明」嗰名上面畫個火柴人仔。(見圖 2)

T: 我哋一齊讀第一句明明中中14厘米」, 邊個矮啲 ?

S: 「明明」矮啲。(學生把手指遮住「比中中」這三個字)

T: (引導學生答「中中 啲」)

明明」啲 , 所以「中中」 ….

S: 「中中」

T: 而家你喺中中嗰名上面畫個火柴人仔 (見圖 3)

(待學生畫出「中中嘅火柴人仔」)

T: 咁喺圖裏面 , 邊個部份代表「14厘米」?

(待學生指出圖中正確的部份,並寫下14) (見圖4)

T: 而家我哋一齊讀第二句 -「明明身高95厘米」。你會將95寫喺邊?

S: 明明嘅火柴人旁邊。

(待學生寫下95 ) (見圖5 )

T: 而家我哋一齊讀第三句 -「中中身高多少厘米?」呢句喺唔喺問句 ?

S: 喺。

T: 咁你會將「問號」寫喺邊個火柴人旁邊?

S: 中中旁邊 (待學生寫出「? 」) (見圖 6 )

第三步 寫數式 (W – Write number sentences)

T: 而家我哋看圖寫數式, 你會用咩方法計出中中嘅身高?

S: 用加法。

T: 點解?

(引導學生講出: 「明明的火柴人」同「14厘米的部 份」合起來就係「中中的身高」, 「合起來」即係「加法」)

T: 而家將數式寫出嚟。

(待學生寫出95 + 14) (見圖 7 )

第四步 計算 (C – Calculate)

T: (待學生計算)

T: 答案係…

S: 109 厘米 (見圖7)

總結:

家長需要留意小朋友在做文字題時,他們能否認讀題目中的文字,並明白詞彙的意思及題意 ( 如 : 「便宜」代表「平」),倘若孩子未能理解清楚,則需要先解釋詞意才能進一步以「圖解策略」來理解「比較」概念了。

以上文章節錄自2019年3月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享

不需要「贏在起跑線」 注重提升自尊及能力感

 

「天生我材」雖然是老套話,但在大圍新翠邨內的東莞工商總會張煌偉小學內,學生們就是切實地去找屬於自己的一片天,皆因他們不需要「贏在起跑線」。校長及老師們只會著重孩子是否可以適應學習模式,學習支援是否足夠,及有否幫助他們發掘共通能力及多元智能等等。

 

現時,校內約有一成為特殊教育需要(SEN)學生,部份學生有不同程度的讀寫障礙徵狀。為使這批學生能夠融入學校生活,校方設計了多方位的學習支援,包括課堂教學時多用圖像、字咭及肢體動作等來加深他們理解及記憶;人手方面亦增聘助理協助個別學生在課堂上的進度。課後亦設有支援小組如「讀默樂」,幫助學生温習默書。此外,學校亦會舉辦不少家長或親子工作坊,讓同路人有機會互相支持,舒緩照顧孩子的壓力。

 

該校梁偉基校長,是博思會教育委員會#的委員,他擁有豐富學校管理經驗,致力推行特別的措施來照顧有學習差異的學生。例如,學校實行「默書分層」,即學習能力較高的學生可以挑戰難度高的「太陽」組默書,而能力較遜者則可參與「月亮」組的默書,範圍及難度亦相應減少。由於默書分數不會列入成績表內,故分層默書並不會造成不公平,反而因應學生個人能力去默書,更容易拿到高分,使孩子不會因分數過低而打擊自信心,依然相信自己可以做得到。

 

至於學業評估方面,為減低學生們的壓力,學校近年在一、二年級已實施「零測驗」安排,每學年只維持兩次考試。小一上學期完結前特設模擬考試,不計分數,旨在讓同學們熟習考試時的規則及要注意的地方。而小二則有兩次進展性評估,同樣並不計分。至於平日的工作紙,老師亦不會給予評級,改為用公仔印代替。學校這些舉措,目的是為減少因分數的競爭而給學生帶來的壓力,同學隨著自己的步伐學習便是最佳的學習方式。這種輕鬆學習氣氛,亦有助於有學習障礙的學生適應主流教育的要求。

 

最後,梁校長寄語各家長 :「成績並不是單一指標,家長應以提升孩子自尊及能力感為首要,並需認同學校理念,避免因期望錯配而為自己及孩子帶來壓力。」

 

#「博思會教育委員會」由業界校長、教育心理學家及教育界資深人士組成,定期進行會議,為博思會的教學相關議題提出寶貴專業意見。

如欲知道更多有關融合教育政策推行,包括聘任特殊教育需要統籌主任,可參看有關新聞報導。https://youtu.be/bbztM2KJFHE

梁偉基校長(右)與學生及家長於學校旅行時合照。

默書分層 (一) : 「月亮」組的默書範圍相對小及容易,在自主學習概念下,老師亦會鼓勵同學在默書前自訂「目標分數」,好讓他們朝著目標努力温習。

默書分層 (二) : 「太陽」組的默書範圍相對多及深,讓有能力的學生可以接受高一層的挑戰。由於默書並不計入成績表內,分層方式並沒有造成不公平情況,反而可令學生更專注於自我挑戰,不用與其他同學比較。

學校內的工作紙不會給予分數評分,而是用印仔代替,減低學生壓力,或遇上低分數的挫敗感。

梁偉基校長同時為博思會教育委員會成員,與本會其他專業人士定期進行會議,關注讀寫障礙學生的需要。

以上文章節錄自2019年3月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享

讀寫障礙學童面對沉重的學業壓力,往往脾氣也變得暴躁或思想負面,作為家長若不懂得管理孩子的情緒,最終會破壞親子關係。為使讀障學童培養正向情緒,父母在管教子女時,應避免以下處理情緒常犯的錯誤

 

處理情緒常犯的錯誤 Don’ts

父母會否定孩子的情緒,不準孩子哭,並說他們不可以生氣。而且,父母亦會希望控制孩子的情緒,企圖用一些說話如「我數三聲,你好收聲」去阻止孩子宣洩情緒。父母甚至會對孩子大聲喝駡,孩子只會感到家長不講理,長大後更會有樣學樣。

此外,部份父母會對孩子進行體罰,深信適當的體罰是必要,可是,這樣做令孩子的情緒得不到適當的處理。另一種父母卻會對孩子喋喋不休地訓示,但只會令孩子覺得悶,拒絕接收訊息。部份父母亦會嘗試恐嚇孩子或對他們說謊,例如說:「你再喊,我就唔比飯你食!」,令孩子信以為真。

除了「威迫」外,父母亦會選擇進行「利誘」,對孩子進行賄賂,例如若孩子停止一些行為,父母便會給予糖果。事實上,當子女鬧情緒時,父母亦會同樣鬧情緒,令他們在處理孩子的情緒時,感到十分無助;情況更甚是父母亦會拒絕孩子,說出「你同我走呀!我唔要你……!」的悔氣說話。

 

正面態度處理孩子情緒 Dos

除了避免以上的錯誤管教方式,父母應該正面處理孩子的情緒,並用一些方法令孩子的情緒改善。當孩子有好的表現和行為時,父母應給予口頭的具體獎賞,以鼓勵孩子繼續做好有關行為。

我們亦鼓勵父母多用身體接觸來改善與孩子的關係,對年幼的孩子,一個溫柔的輕吻可以代表千言萬語;然而,對於較年長的孩子,一個擁抱,拍拍膊頭,也可以傳達關心及支持的信息。父母可以與孩子多參與親子活動,藉以鼓勵及獎賞孩子,例如:旅行、下棋、遠足等等,旅行的照片可放在家中不同角落,重温歡樂時光。

父母亦可以為孩子製作個人龍虎榜,記錄孩子表現出色的優點,例如:自己執書包、用心寫字、幫忙做家務,倘若孩子表現積極、守規及有禮,父母便可利用小獎品給予孩子作為實質的獎勵,如:文具、食物及玩具。

10個父母處理情緒常犯的錯誤
否定孩子的情緒 控制孩子的情緒
對孩子大聲喝駡 體罰孩子
喋喋不休地訓示 恐嚇孩子
對孩子說謊 賄賂孩子
家長也鬧情緒 拒絕孩子

 

5個父母建立孩子正向情緒的方法
給予孩子口頭的具體獎賞 對孩子輕吻、擁抱、拍拍膊頭等身體接觸
與孩子參與親子活動 為孩子建立個人龍虎榜,記錄孩子表現出色的優點
給予表現積極的孩子小獎品,作為實質的獎勵

資深教育心理學家陳靜琼博士與家長分享如何建立讀障學生的正面情緒。

以上文章節錄自2019年3月《博思薈訊》

返回文章分享